Episode 7 – Steel puzzle

With the laser cut parts it should be easy to assemble the tractor in a few hours 😉

Time to check if all the parts for the rear axle fit like planned.

So far so good, but do you remember the plan to build our rear axle out of two separate truck axles? Time to get these parts prepared. The Rockwell differential carrier fits like a charm after we were able to take the needed measurements of the flange and reproduce it in CAD.

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For the MAN planetaries it’s a little bit trickier. The interested follower might have observed that the planetaries come from a front axle an thus you have to deal with the stearing knuckles of these. Easy … after several cutting disks and a run on the lathe, eveything we don’t need ist gone :-/

The nice thing with steel is, that after you cut everything completely apart you can fit it back together … but will it weld? Time for some welding test pieces with a TIG root pass and the filling with TIG or a stick welder and different filler materials. Good preheating will not harm and the hydraulic shop press will show any weakness.

Welds good and seems not to crack, so its time for some weld porn.

Get a piece of ground, round stock, turn some fittings and everything can be aligned for tack welding the complete rear axle.

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The front axle was no big deal, just like Lego with a welder 😛

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Alignment of the complete drive train in CAD was easy, but will it fit in real life? How to align the engine block with the rear axle and make sure everything is straight, square, parallel an whatever geometrical property one can imagine? We are in the 21st century, so every problem can be solved with a laser. Some modifications on a cheap, self  leveling cross line laser from the super market and it becomes a high-tech drive line adjusting tool.

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Looks not too bad. Time to start thinking how to realize the roll-over protection (ROP) according to the ETPC rulebook. Do we know somebody with pipe bending experience? Not really, so this will become a fun challenge :-/

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Episode 6 – CAD

Since we have already collected a lot of parts and you have to start building somewhere, it is time for a plan. Luckily we are living in the 21st century with the availability of free CAD software, so it was time to create a digital model of the future build.

Measuring, measuring, measuring and modeling of the available parts …

The nice thing about CAD is, that you can just virtually align the complete drive train from the crankshaft to the rear wheels, set the correct draw bar position according to the ETPC rules, …

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… and you can design the rest (in fancy colors) around it 😉

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All finished, a few more mouse clicks and you have ordered your tractor as a steel puzzle …

Looks pretty easy 😛

The puzzle will be solved in the next episodes …

 

Episode 5 – CH3OH

A question everybody asks: Why methanol? Well …

There must be reasons why tractor pullers, drag racers and a lot of other people in motor sports use methanol as a fuel. Time to compare some numbers between diesel, gasoline and methanol. We will use freely available data from the deeps of the internet for this purpose.

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To start with, one can see that it is not evident to find a chemical formula for diesel or gasoline fuels. Diesel and Gasoline are blends of hydrocarbons, with a variety of carbon atoms per molecule, and additives. Thus, it is possible to change the characteristics and behaviour of diesel and gasoline fuels for specific applications and there are marginal changes in the numbers for the heating value or specific weight of theses fuels, depending on your source. For methanol it is easier. Here we have a so-called mono-fuel which only consists of a single type of molecules. The first advantage of running pure methanol is that you can clearly define its chemical behaviour. Methanol can be created, using different methods, including renewable resources like natural gas or bio mass. Using methanol as an alternative fuel, made from renewable resources, results only in carbon dioxide, water and the release of the energy under the form of heat.

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The specific weight of the fuels is not a big concern in our application. It should only be mentioned, that methanol is hydrophilic, which means that methanol mixes with water, compared to gasoline and diesel, which don’t. Therefore, it is easy to stop a methanol fire (tough the alcohol flames are hard to see) because you just mix the burning methanol with water to the point where the solution isn’t flammable anymore. On one side an advantage, on the other side a disadvantage, since the hydrophilic characteristic of methanol lets it mix with air moisture, thus contaminating your fuel with water. Measuring the methanol density, weight per volume, gives you the possibility to check for contaminated fuel. Water is “heavier” then methanol, so the specific weight will rise with contamination.

Most of us know that the “O” in the chemical formula stands for oxygen. Therefore, methanol is an oxygen carrier. This does not mean, that you are able to burn methanol without air, but it brings the disadvantage that methanol is corrosive, since a lot of materials will react with the oxygen in methanol and the products which form during methanol combustion and find the way into your engine. Therefore, care has to be taken when choosing the right materials in a methanol fuel system.

Methanol is not ethanol. Compared to ethanol, methanol and its vapours are highly poisonous and you cannot just mix it with a Coke to have a fun time 😉

Motorsports are about power, so let’s have a look at the energy contained in methanol. Comparing the heating value of methanol one can clearly see, that it is just about half of that from gasoline or diesel … not so good. This only applies, when you burn the same quantity of the fuels! But how many fuel do you have to burn?

Engines not only need fuel but also air. To start let’s think about a piston engine just as being a big air compressor. Without fuel, there is only air pumped through the engine. We are mainly interested in the air quantity aspirated by our compressor during the intake cycle. This quantity is preliminary defined trough the mechanical construction of our engine and will not change when we are changing our fuel. To achieve an ideal combustion, we want to consume all the air (oxygen in the air) during combustion. The quantity of fuel needed to use all the air is expressed as the stoichiometric air fuel ratio of a fuel. This ratio is the mass of air you need to burn one mass unit (kilogram) of fuel. Doing the math, you will find out, that for the same amount of air, you “can” or have to use 2.3 times the quantity of methanol compared to gasoline which results in an increase of nearly 14% in energy fed to your engine. This isn’t economical, but in theory methanol can make more power.

Feeding that much methanol to your engine helps also cool your engine. When you are  heating up a liquid, it consumes heat energy and will eventually change into a vapor state. How much energy it takes to heat up a liquid with a mass from 1kg by one °C (Kelvin to be correct 😉 ) is expressed through the specific heat capacity. The specific heat capacity of methanol is 26% higher compared to gasoline. Considering that you are burning 2.3 times more methanol then gasoline in your engine, methanol takes 2.9 times the energy to be heated up. The energy to heat up the fuel in the engine comes from hot intake air, the engines compression cycle and radiation or surface heat of engine components. Thus methanol “cools” all these elements.

You often hear people talking, that methanol burns faster or slower then gasoline and there is a lot of arguing about this. Let me give you two examples, based on gasoline:

  • Throw a lighted match into a full can of gasoline on a very cold winter day (at your own risk 😛 ). There will probably not happen a lot. Maybe some fuel vapours ignite at your cans opening.
  • Poor half a shot glass of gasoline into a 200 liter fuel barrel filled only with air on a hot summer day. When you come just close to the barrels opening with a lighted match, the barrel, your pants and probably a lot of other vital stuff of you will be gone … so don’t do it at home or at another ones home !!!

It’s all about boundary conditions like:

  • air/fuel ratio
  • temperature
  • pressure
  • fuel state (liquid, vapor)

A lot of stuff to take a deeper look at in future episodes 😉

Episode 4 – From Diesel to Otto

As mentioned before, we are not interested to keep our engine running on Diesel fuel or any alternative. This brings the need, that we have to modify the basic engine design from a combustion ignited engine to a spark ignited engine. Basically you are just replacing the Diesel injectors by spark plugs, feed the engine fuel (methanol in our case) with the intake air and you are done … well, no 😉

An internal combustion engine needs a certain amount of energy to ignite the air/fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. In a compression ignition engine (Diesel) the air in the cylinder is compressed during the compression cycle, and following the first law of thermodynamics, the reduction of volume results in an increase of pressure and temperature. The temperature is high enough, so that the fuel auto-ignites when injected. The moment of ignition is given trough the injection pump, theoretically just in the moment, when the piston passes the top death center (TDC).

Diesel

A spark ignited engine usually has it´s fuel directly in the intake air and the compressed mixture is ignited by the energy released trough a sparkplug, when the piston passes TDC.

Otto

Compressing an air and fuel mixture by the same amount as in a Diesel engine will result in an uncontrollable ignition of the mixture long before the piston reaches TDC.

The amount by which the cylinder volume is reduced during the compression cycle is called compression ratio of an engine. The compression ratio is obtained, when you divide the cylinder volume before the compression cycle, by the volume after the compression cycle. A high compression ratio results in a high pressure and temperature after the compression cycle of the engine. To transform a compression ignited engine to a spark ignited engine, you need to reduce the compression roughly by a factor 0.5. Easy … well no. Thinking about this, gives you several options, limited trough the basic design of a piston engine:

  1. Get a thicker head gasket or run an additional spacer plate with 2 head gaskets.
  2. Shorten the connecting rods.
  3. Turn down the pistons, if their is enough “meat”.
  4. Remove material in the cylinder head.
  5. Reduce the cylinder stroke, by offset grinding the rod pins.
  6. Reduce the cylinder stroke with a custom crankshaft.

Options 5 and 6 are impractical, because they will both result in a reduced overall displacement, and option 5 weakens the connection rod pin, not talking about the cost.

Option 1 is common when turbo- or supercharging gasoline automotive engines. No real option for us with individual cylinder heads, and the additional need for longer cylinder head bolts.

Option 2 is also impractical, because the pistons will hit the crankshaft before the bottom death center of the stroke.

Option 4 wouldn’t work due to the cylinder head design, and the need to remove the volume of a full cup of coffee … per cylinder 😉

Time to find out how much material we can remove on the pistons, without weakening them to much.

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That should be enough. Now, how can one determine the volume you remove, without 3D scanning and CNC machining? Interpreting and adapting the principle of an old Greek guy named Archimedes solved our problem. Time for a lot of aluminum chips 😀

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Modifying the cylinder heads to mount spark plugs was a piece of cake. Drill out the injector hole, tap and your done. Well, this time it was actually that easy. A little bit of flattening the bore for spark plug sealing, but that was it.

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Some people will now say: “Yeah, right, but this is not it!” … and they are right. Maybe we will talk about mechanical compression vs. overall compression, volumetric efficiency and some further “small” details on alcohol fed turbo- and supercharged engines in a future episode 😉

Episode 3 – Engine tear-down

After the engines made their way into the workshop, they weren’t really handy to move around to free up space and get some other work done. Time to remove the gearboxes and get the engines on some kind of a fixture. The first gearbox gave us a hard time, but we were able to convince it.

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Each further step made the engines become smaller and mainly lighter. We didn’t weight them without the gearboxes, but they certainly come in around 1200kg.

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We were finally able to move them easily around and proceed with the tear down. Diesel injection pumps (we will certainly not need these), auxiliary drive, power steering pump, oil cooler, water pump, lots of oil filters, engine supports, … the list just keeps going on with stuff we don´t need for pulling.

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Time for a look inside … cylinder heads of … damn, the first engine is not as good as we expected. Somehow we cannot trace back, why we started tearing down this engine first. The plan was to prepare one engine and keep the other one in stock as spare. The crankshaft wouldn’t move and we found the reason. Somehow water or moisture made it into half the cylinders and the pistons are stuck due to corrosion of the piston rings to the cylinder sleeves 😦 We would have fun with the further tear down.

At least we can give some impression on the cylinder bore … you can put a 0,5 liter can or bottle of beer in one of your cylinders … how cute 😛

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Time for an engine stand … the engine manual comes with nice illustrations of the original maintenance stands for the engine. Unusual to flip an engine along the transverse axis, but the Italians have apparently well thought trough this solution, because it works very well.

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Time to get the crankshaft unstuck. Every bolt in relation with the crank impresses on one side by its size, but mostly by the engineering effort which seems to have gone into each one of them. With the main caps of, still no movement in the crankshaft and you can just reach part of the rod bolts …

I will not describe or comment the hours that followed, before the crank and all 8 pistons with rods were out, but it involved a lot of WD40 (and similar) juicy juice and tingling with a sledgehammer. Most important: nobody was hurt and the patient is still alive 😀

4 out of 8 cylinder sleeves are corroded to the point, that they are useless. Time for a DIY hydraulic cylinder sleeve extractor 😉

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… and we need 4 spare sleeves … time to tear the second engine apart. Astonishingly this engine rotated freely and the disassembly went completely smooth. As I told, we can not trace back, why we chose to use the bad engine in first place :-/

 

Episode 2 – Collecting parts

With the engines in the workshop, all you need are two of these big wheels for the rear,  something for the front and you can go pulling. Well, not exactly 😉

The process of deciding what parts we want, locating and collecting these took us 18 months so far. Working on a limited budget you also look to get a good deal on the parts. Ordering straight out of the next online shop is just not affordable, and would only be half the fun.

During our engine search we were able to locate a used wedge chassis with a set of aluminum fenders. This should do the job to build our first pulling tractor. We decided to go with a wedge chassis, giving us the possibility to change and optimize the different components of the tractor independently, without the need to cut everything apart.

How hard can it be to locate a rear axle? With deeper thoughts into this, you come to the point, where you accept, that on one hand it is hard to find usable data on different axles and the vehicles they come with, and that on the other hand you better build a combination out of two different axles. The main problem starts with the rear wheels for pulling and their huge circumference, which means that bolting the wheels to a standard truck axle will just give you excessive wheel speed. Axles of wheel loaders give you acceptable values in terms of overall gear reduction, but are not build with weight saving in mind. With the goal to make big horsepower 😛 , we want a maximum of front weight .. so, back to truck axles … Truck axles get their overall reduction either over the ring/pinion or in combination with a set of planetaries in the wheel hubs. Combining a non-planetary center section (differential carrier) with a set of planetaries brings you in the right range for a good overall rear axle gear reduction. We made the choice to do it right (from our point of view) the first time, an decided to go with an Rockwell/Meritor aluminium center section and MAN/Mercedes planetaries. We got the possibility to acquire a Rockwell differential directly from the US. A deal which is probably just feasible trough the great pulling family. I don’t know the exact number of people involved. But it was possible to get an axle over the pont, without personally knowing anybody involved or being charging any extra money. Meeting some of the people in the future, we due them some beers 😉

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Some other goodies you just find by coincidence on well known online marketplaces. I always wanted one of these high rev inertia aircraft starters. Found one in an auction, which was sitting on someones shelve for decades … I love that thing, being impatient to turn one of the Fiats around with it.

Back to the big wheels for the rear. They are the most recognized item on a pulling tractor and a childs dream. Their disadvantage, when you are not actually pulling, is, that they need lots of space. So, no need to organize these in a hurry. About 10 month ago we were offered a well proven set of light Puller 2000 tires with Midwest rims … we got a good deal … now they help to fill the workshop 😉

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Episode 1 – Trip to Normandy

Nice find in the deep of the internet, a truck garage in Normandy has two Fiat V8s for sale. Hard to get some email contact, the secretary on the phone doesn’t know what I’m asking for, and the commercial guy didn’t call me back. Time for a 1000 km round-trip and just show up at their place. Halfway there, control point of the French Douane (customs) … two young guys in an old 80’s Merc with Luxembourgish license plates, no luggage … suspicious enough. Well, officially we were now on our way to have a look at an oldtimer car.

Finally arrived at the truck garage … No, we can’t help you … Wait, I’ll ask the senior boss. Old school guy, no computer in his 70’s style office, just handwritten stuff. Let’s have a look outside … next to the garage, behind some rusty trucks, two complete Fiat V8s with Eaton/Fuller gearboxes. The guy knows Luxembourg, loves Luxembourgish wine, has a friend with a truck garage close to Luxembourg and knows someone who delivers stuff just next to Luxembourg with his semi-truck on a regular basis. We got a good deal on the engines with a delivery just next to our front door … Jackpot.

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3 weeks later … our engines got shipped, and we could pick them up at a Mercedes truck dealership, just over the French border. Is it worth going there with a big truck? Those engines with the gearboxes didn’t look that heavy. Let’s take a friend’s light truck with the trailer. On the highway down to France, checkpoints in both directions … Douane, Police, Army, automatic guns, … coincidence? At least the engines were perfectly stored in a dry garage, just next to brand new Mercedes parts and trucks. The garage’s forklift was at it’s maximum load capacity, loading the engines on the truck and trailer … we won’t take the highway home. Time for some sightseeing in French suburbs and on country roads.

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Sarcasm ON … Unloading the engines with a front-end loader and bringing them in the workshop was no problem, and wasn’t the entertainment for the whole neighbourhood that evening … Sarcasm OFF.